The ALCAM model comprises of three separate components: the Infrastructure model, the Exposure model and the Consequence model. When combined, these three components produce a unique risk score for each level crossing.

 ALCAM Structure


Although it is a comprehensive tool for the assessment of level crossing hazards, ALCAM cannot be applied in isolation and does not preclude the need for sound engineering judgement. Any risk assessment and treatment also needs to consider other factors, including:

  • Collision and near-collision history 
  • Engineering experience (both rail and road) 
  • Local knowledge of driver or pedestrian behaviour 
  • Social and economic assessment 
  • Standards and international best practice


ALCAM does not provide warrants for upgrades or attempt to define a ‘safe’ or acceptable level of risk. This is a decision for each jurisdiction and will depend on the standard of existing crossings, upgrade budgets and the level of risk that they are prepared to tolerate.

It is also very important to ensure that all stakeholders associated with the particular level crossing are involved with the determination of the final recommended treatment.